Konsep Mashlahat Menurut ‘Izzu al-Din bin Abd al-Salam dalam Kitab Qawa’id al-Ahkam fi Mashalih al-‘Anam

Haetami, Enden (2016) Konsep Mashlahat Menurut ‘Izzu al-Din bin Abd al-Salam dalam Kitab Qawa’id al-Ahkam fi Mashalih al-‘Anam. doktoral thesis, UIN Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung.

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Abstract

INDONESIA Penelitian ini dilatarbelakangi pendapat yang menyatakan bahwa mashlahat merupakan salah satu metode hukum yang paling dominan digunakan para ulama dalam menetapkan hukum syara’. Meskipun al-Qur’an dan Sunnah dianggap sebagai sumber hukum utama yang bersifat qath’iy, namun tidak sedikit para ulama dan pemikir yang menempatkan mashlahat sebagai metode untuk menetapkan hukum syara’. Salah satunya adalah mengkaji pemikiran ‘Izzu al-Din bin Abd al-Salam tentang mashlahat dalam kitabnya, Qawa’id al-Ahkam fi Mashalih al-‘Anam. Penelitian ini bertujuan: (a) menganalisis latar belakang pemikiran ‘Izzu al-Din bin Abd al-Salam dalam mengembangkan metode mashlahat untuk menetapkan hukum syara’; (b) menganalisis metodologi yang digunakan ‘Izzuddin bin Abdi al-Salam dalam mengembangkan metode mashlahat untuk menetapkan hukum syara’; (c) menganalisis kedudukan dan fungsi mashlahat sebagai metode untuk mene¬tapkan hukum syara’ menurut ‘Izzu al-Din bin Abd al-Salam; (d) menganalisis posisi pemi¬kiran ‘Izzu al-Din bin Abd al-Salam dalam menempatkan mashlahat sebagai metode untuk mene¬tapkan hukum syara’ di kalangan ulama ushul dan ulama fiqh; dan (e) menganalisis kontribusi pemikiran ‘Izzu al-Din bin Abd al-Salam dalam menem¬patkan mashlahat sebagai metode untuk mene¬tapkan hukum syara’ terhadap pengem¬bangan Ilmu Hukum Islam dan penerapan Hukum Islam di Indonesia. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode historis-normatif. Sumber data primer, sekunder, dan tersier diperoleh dari sejumlah literature yang erat kaitannya dengan kedudukan dan fungsi mashlahat sebagai metode untuk mene¬tapkan hukum syara’ menurut ‘Izzu al-Din bin Abd al-Salam. Sedangkan teknik pengum¬¬¬¬pulan data dipero¬leh dari book review, komparasi, dan korelasi. Analisa data dilakukan secara deduktif dan induktif. Kerangka teori yang digunakan adalah teori utama (grand theory): teori kredo dan otoritas hukum. Sedangkan teori menengah (middle range theory): teori ijtihad dan perubahan hukum. Adapun teori aplikatif (applicative theory): teori mashlahat dan maqashid al-syariat. Melalui penelitian ini disimpulkan: (a) pemi¬kiran ‘Izzu al-Din bin Abd al-Salam dilatarbelakangi kesadaran dan kewajiban berijtihad karena ia sebagai mufti dan qadhi qudhat yang berasal dari kalangan Sunni-Syafi’i-Mu’tazilah yang sangat berpengaruh; (b) metodologi ‘Izzu al-Din bin Abd al-Salam dalam mengem¬¬bangkan metode mashlahat adalah menyandarkan logika hukum "mendahulukan kemaslahatan dan menia¬dakan kemafsadatan; (c) prinsip fundamental penerapan metode mashlahat adalah untuk tujuan hukum Islam (maqashid al-syari'at) yang diukur dengan akal sehat (rasional), realistis, dan tidak berten-tangan dengan nash; (d) posisi pemikiran ‘Izzu al-Din bin Abd al-Salam berada di generasi ketiga kalangan ulama ushul dan generasi pertama di kalangan ulama fiqh yang bercorak mazhab Syafi’i dan berfaham Sunni; dan (e) pemikiran ‘Izzu al-Din bin Abd al-Salam terbukti berpe¬ngaruh terhadap pengembangan ilmu hukum Islam dan penerapan hukum Islam di Indonesia. Temuan penting dari penelitian ini adalah mengutamakan dan menda¬hulukan nash atas mashlahat adalah mutlak karena sanad dan matan nya sangat kuat (qath’iyyu al-dilalah), sedangkan mashlahat dengan ra’yu – sanad dan matannya dalil hukum yang sifatnya lemah/tidak pasti (zhanniyyu al-dilalah). ENGLISH This research is based on the postulate that mashahat is as one of the legal methods which is dominantly used to conduct Islamic legal jurispredence. Although al-Quran and al-Sunnah are seemed as the primary sources of Islamic law (qath’iy), but many Muslim Scholar and Jurists placed mashlahat as a method for Islamic legal juris¬prudence. One of them is ‘Izzu al-Din bin Abd al-Salam who had explored a mashlahat method in his works, Qawa’id al-Ahkam fi Mashalih al-‘Anam. The aims of the research: (a) to analyze the background of ‘Izzu al-Din bin Abdi al-Salam thought in exploring mashlahat method for conducting Islamic legal jurispru¬dence; (b) to analyze ‘Izzuddin bin Abdi al-Salam’s methodology in exploring mashlahat method for conducting Islamic legal jurispru¬dence; (c) to analyze the position and function of mashlahat method for for conducting Islamic legal jurispru¬dence according to ‘Izzu al-Din bin Abd al-Salam; (d) to analyze the position of ‘Izzu al-Din bin Abd al-Salam thought for placing mashlahat as a method for conducting Islamic legal jurispru¬dence among ulama ushul and ulama fiqh; and (e) to analyze the contribution of ‘Izzu al-Din bin Abd al-Salam through on mashlahat as a method for for conducting Islamic legal jurispru¬dence to developing of Islamic legal studies and the application of Islamic law in Indonesia. This research uses historical-normative method. Primary, secondary, and tertiary data are obtained from literatures related to ‘Izzu al-Din bin Abd al-Salam thought for placing mashlahat as a method for conducting Islamic legal jurispru¬dence. Book review, comparative, and correlation methods are used to collect the data. Deductive and inductive methods are used to analyze the data. This research uses credo and the authority of law theories as a grand theory. The ijtihad and legal change theories are used to the middle range theory. The mashlahat and maqashid al-syari’ah are used to be an applicative theory. Through the research, I conclude: (a) ‘Izzu al-Din bin Abd al-Salam thought’s on mashlahat is based on the obligation awareness to conduct ijtihad because his position as a mufti and the judge in the supreme court (qadhi qudhat) who refers to Sunni-Syafi’i-Mu’tazilah; (b) ‘Izzuddin bin Abdi al-Salam’s methodology in explo¬ring mashlahat method for conducting Islamic legal jurispru¬dence is based on law logic on "mashlahat is more needed and mafsadat is need to be leaved”; (c) the fundamental principle of mashlahat method is the aim of Islamic law (maqashid al-syari'at) must be rational, realistic, and not to be contradiction with nash; (d) the position of ‘Izzu al-Din bin Abd al-Salam’s thought is placed on the third generation among ulama ushul and on the first generation among ulama fiqh as well as Syafi’i and Sunni types; and (e) ‘Izzu al-Din bin Abd al-Salam’s thought is evidently influenced to the developmeng of Islamic legal studies and the application of Islamic law in Indonesia. Finally I found that taking and positioning nash in the first place than mashlahat is absolutely need to do because of its strongly characteristic (qath’iyyu al-dilalah), and mashlahat that contructed through rasio (ra’yu) is more relative (zhanniyyu al-dilalah).

Item Type: Thesis (doktoral)
Subjects: Islam > Muslims Persons, Imams
Fikih (Fiqih, Fiqh), Hukum Islam
Divisions: Pascasarjana Program Doktor > Program Studi Hukum Islam
Depositing User: Users 11 not found.
Date Deposited: 11 Dec 2018 02:27
Last Modified: 11 Dec 2018 02:27
URI: http://digilib.uinsgd.ac.id/id/eprint/17307

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