Sanksi (Ta'zir) dalam perspektif pendidikan islam: studi tentang pelaksanaan Ta`zȋr pada santri di Pondok Pesantren Manba`ul Ulum Kabupaten Cirebon, Al-Mutawally Kabupaten Kuningan dan Baitul Arqom Kabupaten Bandung

Tabroni, Imam (2017) Sanksi (Ta'zir) dalam perspektif pendidikan islam: studi tentang pelaksanaan Ta`zȋr pada santri di Pondok Pesantren Manba`ul Ulum Kabupaten Cirebon, Al-Mutawally Kabupaten Kuningan dan Baitul Arqom Kabupaten Bandung. doktoral thesis, UIN Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung.

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Abstract

INDONESIA Pondok pesantren adalah lembaga pendidikan Islam yang berdaulat dalam menetapkan tujuan pendidikannya. Untuk merealisasikan tujuan pendidikannya, pihak pondok pesantren menerapkan sanksi. Di sisi lain, fenomena ini dipandang berlawanan dengan Undang-Undang nomor 35 tahun 2014 tentang perlindungan anak. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah; pertama; menjelaskan pengertian sanksi menurut pihak pondok pesantren, kedua; mengungkap jenis pelanggaran, kategori, bentuk sanksi, dan petugas pelaksananya, ketiga; mengkaji secara mendalam keefektifan pelaksanaan sanksi, keempat; menganalisis pandangan pihak pondok pesantren, santri, orang tua/wali santri, dan masyarakat (KPAI, Komnas HAM, Kemenag, MUI, PUI, NU, PERSIS, dan Muhammadiyah), dan kelima; merumuskan konsep model sanksi di pondok pesantren. Sanksi di pesantren dipandang berlawanan dengan undang-undang nomor 35 tahun 2014 tentang perlindungan anak. Hal ini disampaikan oleh pihak KPAI sebagai institusi Negara yang melindungi hak anak. Di sisi lain pihak pesantren menganggap sebaliknya. Degradasi moral yang sedang dialami bangsa ini menurutnya berawal dari pembiaran kepada anak untuk melakukan tindakan negatif. Kedua pandangan ini layak untuk dikaji dengan melihat hakikat dan tujuan pendidikan Islam dalam mendidik anak. Penelitian ini menggunakan jenis penelitian kualitatif dengan pendekatan sosiologi dan antropologi pendidikan. Penelitian dilakukan pada kondisi alamiah (natural setting) dimana peneliti sebagai instrumen kunci, teknik pengumpulan data dengan menggunakan trianggulasi (gabungan), analisis data bersifat induktif, dan hasil penelitian lebih menekankan makna dari pada generalisasi. Hasil penelitian ini dapat dijelaskan sebagai berikut; pertama; pengertian sanksi ialah hukuman yang telah disepakati oleh pihak pesantren bagi santri yang telah melanggar tata tertib dengan tujuan agar mereka tidak mengulangi lagi perbuatan serupa (mendidik), kedua; jenis pelanggaran meliputi ringan, sedang, berat, dan volume. Pelaksana sanksi adalah para pengurus, ustadz, dan kiai, ketiga; sanksi di tiga pesantren ini efektif untuk mengubah perilaku santri, keempat; pandangan dari pihak pesantren, santri, orang tua, dan masyarakat mengenai sanksi di pondok pesantren ialah baik dan efektif untuk memberikan efek jera kepada santri yang melanggar, berbeda dengan KPAI dan Komnas HAM, kelima; rumusan konsep model sanksi dalam perspektif pendidikan Islam ialah hukuman psikis dan fisik yang ditetapkan oleh pihak pesantren bagi santri yang melanggar dengan tetap memperhatikan prinsip pendidikan Islam. Teknik pelaksanaannya sebagai berikut: menentukan jenis pelanggaran pertama; pengaruh negatif pola asuh orang tua dan lingkungan pergaulan anak, bentuk sanksi berupa psikis; memberikan keteladanan dengan sifat kasih sayang dan lemah lembut sesuai dengan prinsip pendidikan Islam, jenis pelanggaran kedua; melihat tipologi santri, bentuk sanksi; mengarahkan, menyindir, memberi petunjuk, memberi teguran, memberi seruan, jenis pelanggaran ketiga; melihat motif pelanggaran; bentuk sanksi; sama dengan kedua. ENGLISH Islamic Boarding Schools is a sovereign Islamic educational institution in setting educational goals. To realize the purpose of education, the Islamic Boarding Schools board impose sanctions. On the other hand, this phenomenon is seen as opposed to Law No. 35 of 2014 on child protection. The purpose of this research is; first; Explaining the meaning of sanction according to party of Islamic Boarding Schools, second; Reveals the types of violations, categories, forms of sanctions, and officers, third; Examine in depth the effectiveness of the implementation of sanctions, fourth; Analyze the views of the Islamic Boarding Schools, students, parents/guardians of students, and the community (KPAI, Komnas HAM, Kemenag, MUI, PUI, NU, PERSIS, and Muhammadiyah), and fifth; Formulate the concept of sanction model in Islamic Boarding Schools. Sanctions in Islamic Boarding Schools are seen as opposed to Law No. 35 of 2014 on child protection. This is conveyed by the KPAI as a State institution that protects the rights of the child. On the other hand the Islamic Boarding Schools think otherwise. Moral degradation that is being experienced by this nation according to him begins from negligence to the child to perform negative actions. Both of these views deserve to be examined by looking at the nature and purpose of Islamic education in educating children. This research uses qualitative research type with approach of sociology and anthropology of education. The research was conducted on natural condition where the researcher as the key instrument, data collecting technique using triangulation, the data analysis is inductive, and the result of the research emphasizes the meaning of the generalization. The results of this study can be explained as follows; first; The definition of sanctions is a punishment that has been agreed by the Islamic Boarding Schools for students who have violated the order with the aim that they do not repeat again similar acts (educate), second; Types of violations include mild, moderate, severe, and volume. Implementing sanctions are the administrators, ustadz, and kiai, third; Sanctions in these Islamic Boarding Schools are effective in changing the behavior of students, fourth; The views of Islamic Boarding Schools, students, parents, and the community regarding sanctions in Islamic Boarding Schools are good and effective to give deterrent effect to violating students, in contrast to KPAI and Komnas HAM, the fifth; Formulation of the concept of sanction model in the perspective of Islamic education is a psychological and physical punishment established by the Islamic Boarding Schools for students who violate by observing the principles of Islamic education. Technical implementation as follows: determine the type of first violation; The negative effects of parenting patterns and the social environment of children, the form of psychological sanctions; Exemplifies the nature of compassion and gentleness in accordance with the principles of Islamic education, the second type of offense; See the typology of students, form of sanction; Directing, insinuating, giving directions, giving a reprimand, giving an appeal, a third type of offense; See the violation motive; Form of sanction; Equal to the second.

Item Type: Thesis (doktoral)
Subjects: Islam > Religious Ceremonial Laws and Decisions
Islam > Islamic Religious Education
Divisions: Pascasarjana Program Doktor > Program Studi Pendidikan Islam
Depositing User: Users 11 not found.
Date Deposited: 13 Dec 2018 03:42
Last Modified: 13 Dec 2018 03:42
URI: http://digilib.uinsgd.ac.id/id/eprint/17425

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