Manhaj Imam Ahmad terhadap rawi tafarrud

Herdiansah, Dadi (2019) Manhaj Imam Ahmad terhadap rawi tafarrud. Masters thesis, UIN Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung.

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Abstract

INDONESIA : Ilmu hadis merupakan khazanah keilmuan Islam yang senantiasa terus dikaji. Ilmu ini disusun guna memilah, memilih suatu informasi yang disandarkan ke Nabi SAW hingga dikenal hadis sahih dan daif. Namun hal ini bukanlah perkara mudah, terlebih jika belum menguasai ilmu hadis. Oleh karena itu para ulama dahulu sangat selektif dalam merumuskan persyaratan kevalidan suatu hadis terutama sahihnya suatu sanad. Dari generasi ke generasi kajian hadis khususnya ilmu hadis terus berkembang dan menjadi bahan kajian ilmiah. Salah satu kajian ini adalah menentukan kedudukan sanad hadis dari rawi yang menyendiri. Kondisi rawi yang menyendiri ini selama rawi tersebut tsiqah umumnya tidak ada masalah, namun terkadang terjadi kemungkaran, syâẓ atau ada‘illah apalagi apabila rawinya ḍa‘îf. Rawi yang menyediri ini dalam perkataan ahli hadis lebih dikenal dengan istilah tafarrud. Kapan seorang rawi tafarrud sanadnya sahih, mungkar atau syâż diperlukan kajian manhaj masing-masing. Inilah alasan yang melatarbelakangi penulis dalam melakukan penelitian. Untuk manhaj ulama sebagai bahan analisisnya penulis memilih Imam Ahmad sebab beliau termasuk pakar di bidangnya dengan judul, manhaj Imam Ahmad terhadap rawi tafarrud. Bagaimana bentuk tafarrud rawi dalam sebuah riwayat, bagaimana Imam Ahmad menyikapinya hingga bagaimana kualitas sanad yang dibawanya?. Metode penelitian ini adalah metode penelitian deskriptif yakni mencari jawaban tentang sebab akibat rawi tesebut tafarrud dan menganalisis faktor-faktor penyebab tafarrud hingga kualitas sanadnya dinilai oleh Imam Ahmad dengan munkar, garîb, syâż atau sahih dengan cara perbandingan dan analisis fakta-fakta atas kajian pustaka kitab dengan teknik pengumpulan data dari kepustakaan baik berupa kitab, buku, dokumen atau artikel baik sumber primer maupun sekunder. Terdapat delapan belas hadis yang dinilai munkar dan empat hadis yang dinilai garîb oleh Imam Ahmad dalam kitabnya al-‘Ilal yang semuanya terdapat rawi tafarrud. Terdapat pula banyak hadis lain di luar kitab al-‘ilal yang dinilai sahih dan satu hadis yang dinilai syâż dengan simpulan bahwa selama rawi yang tafarrud ini riwayatnya sudah masyhur dan tidak menyelisihi sanad yang lain maka para ahli hadis mengembalikan pada syarat kesahihan riwayat apakah sanadnya sahih, hasan ataukah daif. Namun apabila rawi tersebut mukhâlafah dengan jalur sanad yang lain atau diketahui suatu‘illah dari sebab tafarrud-nya maka sanadnya sering dilemahkan dengan perkataan munkar, syâż dan lain-lain. Kata Kunci: hadis, munkar, sahih, sanad, tafarrud. ENGLISH : The science of hadith is a treasure of Islamic scholarship that is constantly being studied. This knowledge was compiled to sort out, choose information that was based on the Prophet SAW until it was known as the authentic valid hadith and daif. But this is not an easy matter, especially if you have not mastered the science of hadith. Therefore the ulama were very selective in formulating the validity requirements of a hadith especially the validity of a sanad. From generation to generation the study of hadith, especially the science of hadith, continues to develop and become a scientific study material. One of these studies is to determine the position of the sanad of the hadith from the rawi that are alone. This solitary condition of the rawi as long as the rawi is tsiqah generally there is no problem, but sometimes munkar, syâẓ or there is something ‘illah especially if the rawi ḍa‘îf. This solitary rawi in the words of the hadith expert is better known as the term tafarrud. When a rawi of tafarrud sanad is sahih, munkar or syâż, it is necessary to study each manhaj. This is the reason behind the author in conducting research. For manhaj ulama as the material of his analysis the author chose Imam Ahmad because he was an expert in his level with the title, Manhaj Imam Ahmad towards Rawi tafarrud. How is the form of tafarrud rawi in a history, how does Imam Ahmad react to it, how is the quality of the sanad he is carrying?. The method of this research is descriptive research method that is looking for answers about rawi's causal cause tafarrud and analyzing the causal factors of tafarrud until the quality of the sanad is assessed by Imam Ahmad with munkar, garîb, syâż or sahih by way of comparison and analysis of the facts of the literature study with the technique of collecting data from the literature in the form of books, books, documents or articles both primary and secondary sources. There are eighteen hadiths which are considered munkar and four hadiths which are considered as garîb by Imam Ahmad in his book al-I’lal, all of which are rawi tafarrud. There are also many other traditions outside the book of al-I’lal which are considered sahih and one hadith which are judged by syâż with the conclusion that as long as this rawi of tafarrud is well-known and does not separate the other sanads. then the hadith experts return to the validity requirements of the history whether the sanad is sahih, hasan or daif. But if the rawi is the mukhâlafah with other lines of sanad or is known to be a 'illah' from the cause of its tafarrud, the sanad is often weakened by the words munkar, syâż and others. Keywords: hadith, munkar, sahih, sanad, tafarrud.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Uncontrolled Keywords: hadis; munkar; sahih; sanad; tafarrud.
Subjects: Islam > Hadith
Islam > Dirayah Science of Authenticity of Hadith
Divisions: Pascasarjana Program Magister > Program Studi Ilmu Hadits
Depositing User: Dadi Herdiansah
Date Deposited: 20 Nov 2019 04:00
Last Modified: 20 Nov 2019 04:00
URI: http://digilib.uinsgd.ac.id/id/eprint/26897

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