Wali anak yatim dalam perspektif penafsiran Wahbah Az-Zuhaili: Kajian tematis Tafsir Al-Munir

Jamaludin, Ahmad (2019) Wali anak yatim dalam perspektif penafsiran Wahbah Az-Zuhaili: Kajian tematis Tafsir Al-Munir. Diploma thesis, UIN Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung.

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Abstract

INDONESIA: Di zaman kontemporer ini, perwalian mengenai anak yatim sangat penting untuk diperhatikan, karena wali sangat berperan penting dalam kelangsungan hidup anak yatim. Di mana wali diwajibkan untuk memelihara jiwa dan harta anak yatim, dimulai dari memberi makan, memberikan pendidikan, keterampilan dan pemahamaan agama. Dalam hal ini, perwalian harus dilakukan oleh atau dari pihak karib keluarga terdekat. Namun, pada kenyataannya terutama dikhususkan di Indonesia masih banyak masalah perwalian anak yatim ini yang langsung diserahkan kepada lembaga yayasan yatim dan duafa. Oleh karena itu, penulis sangat tertarik untuk meneliti wali anak yatim dalam perspektif penafsiran Wahbah az-Zuhaili, yaitu dalam kitab Tafsir al-Munir; Aqidah, Syariah, dan Manhaj. Tujuan penelitian ini yaitu untuk mengetahui dan mengungkap bagaimana penafsiran Wahbah az-Zuhaili tentang ayat-ayat wali anak yatim dalam kitab Tafsir al-Munir; Aqidah, Syariah, dan Manhaj. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini yaitu metode deskriptif. Sumber yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini yaitu kitab Tafsir al-Munir; Aqidah, Syariah, dan Manhaj sebagai sumber primer dan berbagai literatur yang berkaitan dengan penelitian ini sebagai sumber sekundernya. Berdasarkan penelitian yang telah penulis lakukan dalam memaknai ayat-ayat tentang wali anak yatim. Pertama, Wahbah az-Zuhaili menjelaskan pengertian wali/perwalian, dijelaskan dalam Qs. Al-Baqarah/2: 220, yaitu kekuasaan yang dimiliki seseorang untuk secara langsung melakukan suatu tindakan sesuai kemampuannya sendiri tanpa harus bergantung atau meminta izin kepada orang lain. Kedua, pengertian anak yatim yaitu anak yang kehilangan ayahnya sebelum berusia balig (dewasa) atau anak yang kehilangan ayahnya saat ia masih kecil,dijelaskan dalam Qs. Al-Nisa/4: 6, memelihara jiwa dan harta anak yatim, dijelaskan dalam Qs. Al-Nisa/4: 3. Ketiga, aspek wali anak yatim meliputi; kewajiban dan larangan wali anak yatim, dijelaskan dalam Qs. Al-Nisa/4: 2, al-Insan/76, al-Fajr/89: 12, al-Balad/90: 15, al-Dhuha/93: 9, yaitu memberikan pendidikan, keterampilan, dan pemahaman agama, adapun larangannya yaitu dilarang memakan harta anak yatim, pengangkatan wali ditunjuk oleh ahli waris atau oleh hakim, dijelaskan dalam Qs. Al-Nisa/4: 8, berakhirnya perwalian apabila si anak telah berusia dewasa atau telah menikah bagi perempuan, dijelaskan dalam Qs. Al-Nisa/4: 127, menyerahkan kembali harta anak yatim, dijelaskan dalam Qs. Al-Nisa/4: 2 dan 6, yaitu mengembalikan hartanya kembali setelah anak yatim tersebut masuk usia dewasa. Keempat, manfaat wali anak yatim, dijelaskan dalam Qs. Al-Baqarah/2: 83, 177, dan 220, Qs. Al-Nisa/4: 127, Qs. Al-Insan/76: 8, Qs. Al-Balad/90: 15, yaitu anak mendapatkan perlidungan jiwa dan hartanya juga mendapat pendidikan, keterampilan, dan pemahaman keagamaan. Kelima, sumber nafkah anak yatim, dijelaskan dalam Qs. Al-Baqarah/2: 177, 215, Qs. Al-Hasyr/59: 7, Qs. Al-Insan/76: 8 dan Qs. Al-Balad/90: 15, yaitu berasal dari harta anak yatim, wali anak yatim dan bila tidak ada dari keduanya maka pemerintah yang wajib menafkahi anak yatim tersebut. Hasil dari analisis penafsiran Wahbah az-Zuhaili yaitu bahwa wali anak yatim itu ada runtutannya. Runtutan wali anak yatim dibagi ke dalam dua kategori, yaitu wali atas diri pribadi dan wali atas harta benda anak yatim. Runtutan wali anak yatim atas diri pribadi meliputi ayah, kakek, saudara laki-laki, dan paman. Adapun runtutan wali anak yatim atas harta benda meliputi orang yang diwasiati, kakek, kemudian hakim atau pemerintah.   ENGLISH: In this contemporary era, guardianship about orphans is very important to consider, because guardians are very important in the survival of orphans. Where guardians are required to care for the lives and property of orphans, starting from feeding, providing education, skills and understanding of religion. In this case, guardianship must be carried out by or from a close family member. However, in reality, especially in Indonesia, there are still many problems regarding the guardianship of these orphans who are directly handed over to the orphanage and duafa foundation institutions. Therefore, the author is very interested in examining the guardians of orphans in the perspective of Wahbah az-Zuhaili's interpretation, namely in the book of Tafsir al-Munir; Aqidah, Sharia, and Manhaj. The purpose of this study is to find out and reveal how Wahbah az-Zuhaili's interpretation of the guardians of orphans in the book of Tafsir al-Munir; Aqidah, Sharia, and Manhaj.The method used in this research is descriptive method. The sources used in this study are the Tafsir al-Munir book; Aqidah, Sharia, and Manhaj as primary sources and various literature relating to this research as secondary sources.Based on research that the author has done in interpreting the verses about the guardians of orphans. First, Wahbah az-Zuhaili explains the notion of guardian / guardianship, explained in Qs. Al-Baqarah / 2: 220, namely the power possessed by someone to directly carry out an action according to their own ability without having to depend or ask permission from others. Second, the definition of an orphan is a child who lost his father before he was old (adult) or a child who lost his father when he was a child, explained in Qs. Al-Nisa / 4: 6, preserving the souls and property of orphans, is explained in Qs. Al-Nisa / 4: 3.Third, aspects of guardians of orphans include; the obligations and prohibitions of guardians of orphans, are explained in Qs. Al-Nisa / 4: 2, al-Insan / 76, al-Fajr / 89: 12, al-Balad / 90: 15, al-Dhuha / 93: 9, namely providing education, skills and understanding of religion, as for the prohibitions i.e. it is forbidden to eat the property of orphans, the appointment of a guardian appointed by an heir or by a judge, explained in Qs. Al-Nisa / 4: 8, the end of guardianship if the child is an adult or has been married to a woman, is explained in Qs. Al-Nisa / 4: 127, giving back the assets of orphans, is explained in Qs. Al-Nisa / 4: 2 and 6, i.e. returning their property after the orphan enters adulthood. Fourth, the benefits of guardians of orphans, are explained in Qs. Al-Baqarah / 2: 83, 177 and 220, Qs. Al-Nisa / 4: 127, Qs. Al-Insan / 76: 8, Qs. Al-Balad / 90:15, i.e. the child gets soul protection and his wealth also gets education, skills, and religious understanding. Fifth, the source of living for orphans, explained in Qs. Al-Baqarah / 2: 177, 215, Qs. Al-Hasyr / 59: 7, Qs. Al-Insan / 76: 8 and Qs. Al-Balad / 90:15, which is derived from the property of orphans, guardians of orphans and if neither of them is the government that is obliged to provide for the orphans. The results of the analysis of the interpretation of Wahbah az-Zuhaili is that the guardian of orphans has a sequence. The demands for the guardians of orphans are divided into two categories, namely guardians over personal self and guardians over the property of orphans. The demands of orphan guardians for themselves include fathers, grandfathers, brothers and uncles. The sequence of guardians of orphans for property includes the inherited person, grandfather, then the judge or the government.

Item Type: Thesis (Diploma)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Anak Yatim; Yatim; Wali; Perwalian
Subjects: Al-Qur'an (Al Qur'an, Alquran, Quran) dan Ilmu yang Berkaitan
Al-Qur'an (Al Qur'an, Alquran, Quran) dan Ilmu yang Berkaitan > Tafsir Al-Qur'an
Divisions: Fakultas Ushuluddin > Program Studi Ilmu Al-Qur'an dan Tafsir
Depositing User: ajam ahmad jamaludin
Date Deposited: 29 Nov 2019 07:42
Last Modified: 29 Nov 2019 07:42
URI: http://digilib.uinsgd.ac.id/id/eprint/27942

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