Konflik antara organisasi Freemasonry dengan organisasi-organisasi Islam di Jawa (1905-1942)

Arifin, Faizal (2018) Konflik antara organisasi Freemasonry dengan organisasi-organisasi Islam di Jawa (1905-1942). Masters thesis, UIN Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung.

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Abstract

INDONESIA : Berbagai propaganda dan seruan kemanusiaan maupun budaya, menarik golongan elit bumiputera khususnya para priyayi untuk menjadi anggota Freemasonry. Freemasonry memilih golongan elit bumiputera sebagai target ajarannya untuk menghadapi berbagai gerakan Islam yang menginginkan perubahan sosial dan secara tidak langsung menolak status quo kekuasaan Belanda di Hindia Belanda sehingga melatarbelakangi konflik. Berdasarkan uraian di atas, terdapat beberapa rumusan masalah dalam penelitian sebagai berikut. Pertama, bagaimana sejarah dan perkembangan Freemasonry di Hindia Belanda. Kedua, bagaimana konflik antara Freemasonry dengan organisasi-organisasi Islam di Jawa pada 1905-1942. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode penelitian sejarah (metode historis) yang menggunakan empat tahapan yaitu heuristik, kritik, interpretasi, dan historiografi. Adapun pendekatan teoritis yang digunakan adalah teori elit kekuasaan dari Wright C. Mills serta teori konflik dari Lewis A. Coser. Berdasarkan penelitian disimpulkan bahwa konflik antara Freemasonry dengan organisasi-organisasi Islam di Hindia Belanda pada abad XX, disebabkan oleh perbedaan ideologis dan cara pandang terhadap agama. Freemasonry memiliki pandangan yang anti terhadap berbagai perumusan agama, menolak berbagai bentuk fanatisme agama, dan anti terhadap dogma, sehingga termasuk organisasi yang mengembangkan sekulerisme. Freemasonry meskipun tidak berhubungan secara struktural dengan pemerintah Hindia Belanda, namun dipandang memiliki kesamaan kepentingan untuk melakukan asimilasi ideologis kepada elit bumiputera sehingga lahirlah kerjasama power elite untuk mengokohkan kekuasaan. Konflik yang terjadi antara Freemasonry yang mempengaruhi kelompok elit bumiputera yaitu priyayi sampai pada tahapan mengkritik agama atau ajaran Islam, sesuai pandangan Lewis A. Coser, telah memperkuat kembali identitas kelompok Islam serta melindunginya agar tidak lebur ke dalam dunia sosial yang didominasi oleh kekuasaan Kolonialisme Belanda. Hal tersebut melatarbelakangi muncul dan berkembangnya berbagai organisasi Islam seperti Sarekat Islam melalui gerakan politik, Muhammadiyah melalui gerakan pendidikan modern dan kegiatan sosial, Nahdlatul ‘Ulama melalui pesantren dan ‘ulama, Persatuan Islam melalui media massa dan debat, dan Jong Islamitien Bond dengan menyatukan pemuda muslim, yang kesemuanya menghadapi hegemoni Freemasonry di Hindia Belanda. ENGLISH : Freemasonry’s propaganda such as humanitarian and cultural appeals, attracted Bumiputera elites especially the priyayi to become members of Freemasonry. Freemasonry chose Bumiputera elite as the target of its teachings to deal with various Islamic movements that wanted social change and indirectly rejected the status quo of Dutch rule in the Dutch East Indies and it would be the background of the conflict. Based on the description above, there are several formulations of problems in the study as follows. First, how is the history and development of Freemasonry in the Dutch East Indies. Second, how was the conflict between Freemasonry and Islamic organizations in Java in 1905-1942. The research method used is historical research method that uses four stages are heuristics, criticism, interpretation, and historiography. The theoretical approach used is power elite theory from Wright C. Mills and conflict theory from Lewis A. Coser. Based on the research concluded that the conflict between Freemasonry and Islamic organizations in the Dutch East Indies in the twentieth century, was caused by differences in ideology and perspective on religion. Freemasonry has an anti-religious viewpoint, rejects various forms of religious fanaticism, against dogma, and it shows that the organization was develop secularism. Even though Freemasonry is not structurally related to the Dutch East Indies government, it is seen that it has the same interests to assimilate ideologies to the elite Bumiputera and make elite power cooperation emerge to strengthen power. The conflict that occurred between Freemasonry which influenced priyayi to the stage of criticizing religion or Islamic teachings, according to Lewis A. Coser's theory, has strengthened the identity of the Islamic group and protected it from being dissolved into a social world dominated by Dutch Colonialism. This is the background of the emergence and development of various Islamic organizations that want social change in the Dutch East Indies such as Sarekat Islam with political power, Muhammadiyah with modern education and social activity, Nahdlatul ‘Ulama with pesantren and Ulama, Persatuan Islam with mass media and debating, and Jong Islamitien Bond with unity young moslem, all of them grew up to against the hegemony of Freemasonry in the Dutch East Indies.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Freemasonry; Vrijmetselarij; Sarekat Islam; Muhammadiyah; Nahdlatul ‘Ulama; Persatuan Islam; Jong Islamitien Bond;
Subjects: World History, Civilizations > World History 20th Century, 1900 - 1999
History of Europe > History of Europe at 1454 - 1913
History of Asia > Period of European Exploration, 1480 - 1904
History of Southeast Asia > Period 1960 -1969
Divisions: Pascasarjana Program Magister > Program Studi Sejarah Kebudayaan Islam
Depositing User: Mr. Faizal Arifin
Date Deposited: 31 Mar 2020 01:55
Last Modified: 31 Mar 2020 01:55
URI: http://digilib.uinsgd.ac.id/id/eprint/28807

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