Konsep Imamat menurut Imam Al-Haramain (W.478 H/1085 M)

Syarif, Nurrohman (2004) Konsep Imamat menurut Imam Al-Haramain (W.478 H/1085 M). doktoral thesis, UIN Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung.

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Abstract

The of classical scholars concerning imâmat can be divided broadly into two tendencies. The first try to idealize imâmat concept accompanied with repudiation directly or indirectly toward reality which is considered non ideal. The second try to idealize imâmat concept but accompanied with possibilities to accommodate reality and historical experience although it is considered non ideal. Scholars who tend to first tendency can be categorized as idealist while they are tend to second tendency can be categorized as realist. According to Hamid Enayat, Sunni scholars commonly have realistic political thought while Khawarij and Syi’ah commonly have idealistic political thought. According to him so far as the Sunni thinking on the Caliphate enjoyed any continuity , one can detect in it a pronounced sense of realism, an eagerness to adjust theory to practice. Compared with their Syi’i counterparts , the Sunni exponents of the theory of the Caliphate between the fifth and eighth centuries displayed much greater flexibility in adapting their ideas to political reality. Al-Juwaini Imam al-Haramain is well known as Sunni figure in his era. As a Sunni it can be hypothesized that he has realistic political thought. But in theological thought he has his own opinion which differs with Asyariyah or Sunni mainstream. Harun Nasution said that al-Juwaini Imam al-Haramain has theological concept that different with Asy;ariyah and more close to Mu’tazilah concept. Ahmad Amin described him as somebody that returned to Mu’tazilah by zigzag road. Tsuraya Kiswati Farhan in her dissertation concluded that al-Juwaini Imam al-Haramain has independent thought in theology ,he doesn’t follow any sect that present in his era. . If in theological thought ,Imam al-Haramain cannot be categorized to Asy’ariyah sect , then the question emergence is whether in political thought he can be categorized as realistic thinker which is generally adopted by Sunni ? If it is right then the question is what is the color of realistic thought that he has been developed. Further , considering in classical Islamic history religion and politics can’t be separated then the additional question can be proposed is how the relationship between religion and power in Imam al-Haramain view. The other question is how the relationship between ruler and people. The primary source of this dissertation is the book written by Imam al-Haramain entitle Ghiyâts al-Umam fi Iltiyâs al-Zhulam or well known by al-Ghiyâtsi. Other books written by Ulemas about imâmat or siyâsat used as secondary source. In line with source of data used in this research, this research employed library research method with descriptive analysis technique accompanied with comparative approach. In concordance with discipline will be enriched , this research uses juridical , political and sociological approach. Based on available data and based on realistic political thought criteria made by writer, it can be concluded that al-Juwaini Imam al-Haramain has realistic political thought. Then based on such statements in many places where he usually returned all things to their functions accompanied with contextual and rational explanation, the realism he developed can be named functional or rational realism. And then if the relationship between religion and power in Imam al-Haramain view measured by tree classifications offered by Masykuri Abdillah or Munawir Sjadzali; integrated , intersectional and separated, the writer tend to place Imam al-Haramain concept on relationship between religion and power in two categories; integrated and intersectional. In principal , he wish that there is integrated relationship between religion and power, it mean that the ruler of state is also the leader of religion. But if the condition impossible to make it , he accepted a such separation between religion leader and political leader but both of them should enhanced each other in symbiotic relationship. The relationship between ruler and people in al-Haramain concept is contractual in the shape of reciprocal relationship which resulted rights and duties in balanced manner. People asked to follow their Imam but Imam also asked to maintain his duties and tasks. If al-Haramain thought concerning government viewed from sovereignty theory discourse developed in Islam ; theocracy, democracy, theo-democracy, nomocracy, aristocracy and combined between democracy and aristocracy, the color of government in al-Haramain concept of Imâmat can be placed between democracy and aristocracy or between democracy and theocracy. Al-Haramain his self prefer to use term khilâfat or imâmat to name his concept on political leadership and ideally he wish that there is only one imâmat or khilafat for all Muslims.

Item Type: Thesis (doktoral)
Subjects: Islam Umum > Muslim, Orang Islam, Imam
Fikih (Fiqih, Fiqh), Hukum Islam > Aspek Ibadah Lainnya
Divisions: Fakultas Syariah dan Hukum > Program Studi Hukum Ketatanegaraan dan Politik Islam (Siyasah)
Depositing User: Dr. Nurrohman Syarif
Date Deposited: 28 Apr 2017 03:28
Last Modified: 10 Jan 2019 04:26
URI: http://digilib.uinsgd.ac.id/id/eprint/3585

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